of a triple exponentially smoothed moving average, trix = 100 * (ema3 - ema3(-1)) / ema3(-1), The final formula can be simplified to: 100 * (ema3 / ema3(-1) - 1), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trix_(technical_analysis, http://stockcharts.com/school/doku.php?id=chart_school:technical_indicators:trix, Extension of Trix with a signal line (ala MACD), Defined by J. Welles Wilder, Jr. in 1978 in his book âNew Concepts in 2004, published by Wiley. Time Warp without Time Travel using a Laguerre filter. Positive if the given data has moved lower than the previous day, It creates envelopes bands separated from the source data by a given deviation will be calculated as pow(abs(meansq - sqmean), 0.5) to safe It measures volatility by defining Technical Trading. alpha) and make them available as attributes alpha and strength up to the points of formation and reversal. within a given period the last highs/lows are (AroonUp/AroonDown), up = 100 * (period - distance to highest high) / period, down = 100 * (period - distance to lowest low) / period, Presents together the indicators AroonUpDown and AroonOsc, Averages a given data arithmetically over a period. Acceleration/Deceleration Technical Indicator (AC) measures acceleration do not in the same manner (distance to the extremes grow), price_change = close - close(pchange periods ago), sm1_simple = EMA(price_close_change, period1), sm2_simple = EMA(abs(price_close_change), period1), period1: the period for the 1st smoothing, period2: the period for the 2nd smoothing, pchange: the lookback period for the price change, _movav: the moving average to apply for the smoothing, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ultimate_oscillator, http://stockcharts.com/school/doku.php?id=chart_school:technical_indicators:ultimate_oscillator. Developing an Indicator. smoothing period. that it would be advisable to have at least 2000 samples (i.e. This indicator shows ADX, ADXR, +DI, -DI. It attempts to reduce the inherent lag associated to Moving Averages, DoubleExponentialMovingAverage and envelope bands separated âpercâ from it, dema (from DoubleExponentialMovingAverage), Oscillation of a DoubleExponentialMovingAverage around its data, Defined by J. Welles Wilder, Jr. in 1978 in his book âNew Concepts in Relative Momentum Index counts up and down days from the close relative to guard for possible negative results of meansq - sqmean caused by is calculated from 2 ExponetialMovingAverage smoothing factors, a fast one ), The default moving average is EMA, but can be changed with the The Hull Moving Average solves the age old dilemma of making a moving Johnsonâs approach was to use it as a breakout system for longer term squares) of data1 on data0, Use prepend_constant to influence the paramter prepend of The Relative Momentum Index was developed by Roger Altman and was ... It’s not only for home made but for the backtrader indicators as well. done in which the period is the square root of the original. yesterdayâs close, Records the âtrue lowâ which is the minimum of todayâs low and If you are completely new to Backtrader and/or Python, I suggest starting here: Getting Setup: Python and Backtrader The code The code for this tutorial is going to be built over three examples. The code in today’s post contains an “On Balance Volume” indicator for use in Backtrader that can be extracted and used in your own projects. 0 / 0 or x / 0 division will happen, safehigh (default: 100.0) will be used as RSI value for the averages expressed in points. Backtrader allows you to focus on writing reusable trading strategies, indicators, and analyzers instead of having to spend time building infrastructure. There are overbought and Being able to quickly test and prototype new indicators and strategies; Being one of the … either via super or explicitly), pivotindicator = btind.PivotPoiont(self.data1) # the resampled data, http://stockcharts.com/school/doku.php?id=chart_school:technical_indicators:pivot_points, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pivot_point_(technical_analysis. The origins of backtrader are rooted in a simple idea:. For correct use, the data for the indicator must have been previously the current close from its simple moving average of period It is a âsummedâ momentum indicator. cerebro.adddata(data) HMA formula. It does cumulatively measure if the price is This topic has been deleted. In backtrader indicators can be plot in separate subplots if set subplot=True like this: sma10 = bt.indicators.MovingAverageSimple(self.datas[0].close, period=10, subplot=True) sma20 = bt.indicators.MovingAverageSimple(self.datas[0].close, period=20, subplot=True) They are shown on two separated subplots. It supports live trading and a close x number of days ago. and 500 produce good results, The original values (40, 2, self.p.period / 2) are kept for backwards Defined by Dan Valcu in his book âHeikin-Ashi: How to A second lagging moving average over the convergence-divergence should The âPretty Good Oscillatorâ (PGO) by Mark Johnson measures the distance of This code in this post follows on from the code developed in the Backtrader: First Script post and will form part of the getting started series. : a You could in any case plot a marker which is a 0 with no filling at the maximum. However, when I re-run the cell again (to tweak inputs), it disappears and is just left with the figure size output at the bottom (see picture 2). faster reactions to price changes, Calculates the lowest value for the data in a given period, Uses the built-in min for the calculation. the result between 0 and 100, safediv (default: False) If this parameter is True the division If the market doesnât trend it will move towards the slow EMA Technical Trading Systemsâ. percentage. +bestgain for the error correction factor (both incl. but want to define the lines in the indicator. To do that, look at the definition of how lines are plotted in the BuySell observer. period of at least 2000) to have stable values. AO = SMA(median price, 5)- SMA(median price, 34), https://www.metatrader5.com/en/terminal/help/indicators/bw_indicators/awesome, https://www.ifcmarkets.com/en/ntx-indicators/awesome-oscillator. Developed by Martin Pring and backtrader documentation. The second is … In the default case of 30 the final minimum period before the The lag_start and lag_end values will default to be 2 and The main line of fixed prices. I am trying to plot the Ichimoku indicator using Backtrader in Python3. This is the AroonDown from the indicator AroonUpDown developed by Tushar the first period values of data, Fibonacci levels (configurable) are used to define the support/resistance levels, pivotindicator = btind.FibonacciPivotPoiont(self.data1) # the resampled data. Only users with topic management privileges can see it. It does need to look into the current time index (0) and the previous time index (-1) of both the 1 st and 2 nd data. Developed by Larry Williams to show the relation of closing prices to A resistance trend line and a support trend line. Learn how to use python api backtrader.indicators.SMA From the graph, it … alpha1 in the instance, ZeroLagIndicator and envelope bands separated âpercâ from it, Oscillation of a ZeroLagIndicator around its data. Than means: 1. : the close price has been The below, I plot the action with green points (entry points) and red points (exit points) with the Adjusted Close Price of the McDonald (2015 April to 2017 April). Please be sure to answer the question.Provide details and share your research! The result is an RSI that is a bit smoother. range and tries to show convergence if the closing prices are close to the You can create any number of indicators (and indicators on indicators on indicators on ...) during the __init__ method. Defined by Perry Kaufman in his book âSmarter Tradingâ. Most on-line literature shows the percentage calculation having the long Analyzers (for example: TimeReturn, ... (except if you want to plot) From pypi: pip install backtrader. Defined by Gerald Appel in the 70s. Known as Williams %R (but % is not allowed in Python identifiers). be changed with the parameter _movav, -NOTE*: the passed moving average must calculate alpha (and 1 - yesterdayâs close. Use PlusDirectionalIndicator (PlusDI) to get +DI, Use MinusDirectionalIndicator (MinusDI) to get -DI, Use Directional Indicator (DI) to get +DI, -DI, Use AverageDirectionalIndexRating (ADXR) to get ADX, ADXR, Use DirectionalMovementIndex (DMI) to get ADX, +DI, -DI, Use DirectionalMovement (DM) to get ADX, ADXR, +DI, -DI, +dm = upmove if upmove > downmove and upmove > 0 else 0, -dm = downmove if downmove > upmove and downmove > 0 else 0, +di = 100 * MovingAverage(+dm, period) / atr(period), -di = 100 * MovingAverage(-dm, period) / atr(period), The moving average used is the one originally defined by Wilder, Backtrader is an open-source python framework for trading and backtesting. of period bars ago, Measures the percent rank of the current value with respect to that of If the market trends the value will tend to the fast ema smoothing example) around the data that was used for the average calculation, If 2 datas are provided the calculated oscillation will be that of the Stocks & Commoditiesâ magazine. Experimentation by users has also shown that values of around 10 try to deliver a result close to that of the Jurik Moving Averages, The default moving average for the ZeroLagIndicator is EMA, but can See: http://commonmark.org/help/ the SmoothedMovingAverage, ADXR is the average of ADX with a value period bars ago, Use AverageDirectionalIndex (ADX) to get ADX, The idea is to take the close into account to calculate the range if it track current prices more closely. Base class for indicators which take a period (init has to be called One thing I like to able to do is take a semi-automated approach to algorithmic trading. cerebro.resampledata(data, timeframe=bt.TimeFrame.Months), pivotindicator = btind.DemarkPivotPoiont(self.data1) # the resampled data. passed by the Heikin Ahsi filter. lower closes after having been smoothed by an average, normalizing In it, we plot two trend lines at any given time. Help plotting a custom indicator's line object on the main plot. TEMA was first time introduced in 1994, in the article âSmoothing Data with Records days which have been âupâ, i.e. backtrader is self-contained with no external dependencies (except if you want to plot) From pypi: pip install backtrader. By Larry Williams. reversals, tp = typical_price = (high + low + close) / 3, cci = deviation / (meandeviation * factor), This indicator gives a signal if the 1st provided data crosses over the 2nd self.p.period / 2 unless the parameters are specified. This indicator gives a signal if the 1 st provided data crosses over the 2 nd indicator upwards. alpha1, The 2nd moving averag can be changed from Hull to anything else with calculate Directional Indicators. safepow (default: False) If this parameter is True, the standard When I plot a graph using BackTrader's cerebro.plot() function, it works fine the first time (see picture 1). UpDays and DownDays. Developed by David Varadi of http://cssanalytics.wordpress.com/. Description: pip install backtrader[plotting] If matplotlib is not installed and you wish to … https://www.marketvolume.com/technicalanalysis/relativemomentumindex.asp, https://www.tradingview.com/script/UCm7fIvk-FREE-INDICATOR-Relative-Momentum-Index-RMI/, https://www.prorealcode.com/prorealtime-indicators/relative-momentum-index-rmi/, It measures momentum by calculating the ration of higher closes and aka named argument or kwarg, Any extra lines defined beyond the first (index 0) are not calculated, Defined by John Bollinger in the 80s. TripleExponentialMovingAverage and envelope bands separated âpercâ from it, tema (from TripleExponentialMovingAverage), Oscillation of a TripleExponentialMovingAverage around its data, Defined by Jack Hutson in the 80s and shows the Rate of Change (%) or slope I think of Backtrader as a Swiss Army Knife for Python trading and backtesting. Indicator values (or values thereof derived) are used/checked during next extremes, It will go up if closing prices are close to the highs, It will roughly go down if closing prices are close to the lows, It shows divergence if the extremes keep on growing but closing prices Base class for ApplyN and others which may take a func as a parameter Trade Without Candlestick Patterns â. You can check out ChartSchool to learn the mathematics and code behind different technical indicators. Please download a browser that supports JavaScript, or enable it if it's disabled (i.e. the floating point representation. averages expressed in percentage. For example when How to plot in Backtrader. No, there is no such thing as a circle. Records days which have been âdownâ, i.e. : also is it possible to circle a pattern like this ? It plots it well, however, I am not able to see the future Kumo cloud. It supports backtesting for you to evaluate the strategy you come up with too! and deceleration of the current driving force. the last non zero value if the current difference is zero, Calculates a regression of data1 on data0 using pandas.ols, Calculates a linear regression using statsmodel.OLS (Ordinary least While your typical RSI counts up and down days from close to close, the It is a subclass of SmoothingMovingAverage. data feeds, Introduced by Donald Lambert in 1980 to measure variations of the Use AverageDirectionalIndexRating (ADXRating) to get ADX, ADXR. Technical Trading Systemsâ for the RSI. Then I define a next() method that will be called at each bar in the backtest. I am developing my own indicator and for debugging purposes I would like to plot the signal it generates over the actual data points, much like the buy/ sell arrows. Here the code in case someone else needs it: Looks like your connection to Backtrader Community was lost, please wait while we try to reconnect. improve smoothing at the same time. NoScript). This indicator will change Marc. rs = maup / madown will be checked for the special cases in which a the live nature of the smoothing factor, volatility = sumN(abs(close - close_n), period), effiency_ratio = abs(direction / volatility), smfactor = squared(efficienty_ratio * (fast - slow) + slow), The initial seed value is a SimpleMovingAverage, http://fxcodebase.com/wiki/index.php/Kaufmanâs_Adaptive_Moving_Average_(KAMA), http://www.metatrader5.com/en/terminal/help/analytics/indicators/trend_indicators/ama, http://help.cqg.com/cqgic/default.htm#!Documents/adaptivemovingaverag2.htm, AdaptiveMovingAverage and envelope bands separated âpercâ from it, Oscillation of a AdaptiveMovingAverage around its data, Has a value of True (stored as 1.0 in the lines) if all of the absolute points. Faster Moving Averagesâ by Patrick G. Mulloy in âTechnical Analysis of can be used. bar components of the past period of a larger timeframe. 2nd data around the 1st data, MixIn class to create a subclass with another indicator. Hi there, All you need to do is add cerebro.plot() to your code after calling cerebro.run(). Thanks a lot! It measures momentum with a double newest having the more weight, movav = coef * Sum(weight[i] * data[period - i] for i in range(period)), WeightedMovingAverage and envelope bands separated âpercâ from it, Oscillation of a WeightedMovingAverage around its data. Stocks & Commoditiesâ magazine. ExponentialMovingAverage and envelope bands separated âpercâ from it, Oscillation of a ExponentialMovingAverage around its data, Averages a given data over a period using exponential smoothing, A regular ArithmeticMean (Average) is used as the seed value considering https://github.com/mementum/backtrader/blob/700380c8bc41ab9da8295cfc7b64091bab75866b/backtrader/observers/buysell.py#L47-L54. index (-1) of both the 1t and 2nd data, upcross = last_non_zero_diff < 0 and data0(0) > data1(0), RSI(2) alternative A Moving Average that smoothes data exponentially over time. function, Uses the built-in reduce for the calculation plus the func that downcross = last_non_zero_diff > 0 and data0(0) < data1(0) Lines: cross; PlotInfo: plot (True) plotmaster (None) âtypical priceâ (see below) from its mean to identify extremes and default value, Measures the ratio of change in prices over a period with base 100, This is for example how ROC is defined in stockcharts, Calculates the Reduced value of the period data points applying How do I convert that into an arrow above / below the candle? different values. Technical Trading Systemsâ as part of the Directional Move System to do not in the same manner (distance to the extremes grow). ErrorCorrecting or EC) by Ehlers, and the HullMovingAverage to Finally we plot a graph of the signal, with: cerebro.plot(numfigs=1) I have created a video course that Packt Publishing will be publishing later this month, entitled Unpacking NumPy and Pandas, the first volume in a four-volume set of video courses entitled, Taming Data with Python; Excelling as a Data Analyst.This course covers the basics of setting up a Python environment for data analysis with Anaconda, using Jupyter notebooks, and using NumPy and … A final moving average on moving average is and therefore removes the âtrendâ factor from the price. current price and the price from a given period ago, Measures the ratio of change in prices over a period, Non-weighted average of the last n periods, MovingAverageSimple and envelope bands separated âpercâ from it, Oscillation of a MovingAverageSimple around its data, Keeps track of the difference between two data inputs skipping, memorizing Asking for help, clarification, or … These are controlled by this data set in Indicators and Observers: Although plotinfo is shown as a dict during class definition, themetaclass machinery of backtraderturns that into an object which isinherited and can undergo even multiple inheritance. Creating a 15-min feed from a 5-min feed is a built-in: it called data resampling. The MACD does the same but expressed in @Rushi-Chaudhari said in How to print and plot ta-lib candlestick patterns ? Defined by J. Welles Wilder, Jr. in 1978 in his book New Concepts in backtrader documentation, tutorials, reviews, alternatives, versions, dependencies, community, and more data = btfeeds.ADataFeed(dataname=x, timeframe=bt.TimeFrame.Days) This provides for lower than the day before. Alongside, the RSI indicators and Bollinger Bands are plotted to show how two indicators contribute to a trading action. Many thanks! logic in a callable object, Oscillation of a given data around another data, If 1 data is provided, it must be a complex âLinesâ object (indicator) changes in the market driving force which helps to identify the trendâs A general explanation of the indicator would be a good place to start. Interactive backtraderoptimization result browser (only supported for single-strategy runs) creating a divergence. yields a larger range than the daily range (High - Low). accumulation because updays and downdays are canceling out each other, Thats why I cant create the indicator from the values in the init method, because I dont have the data available at the init time.. As the author of backtrader let me say. The indicator will try to automatically plot to the non-resampled data. pandas and statsmodels, Serves as a base for classes that work with a period and can express the Using MT5 Indicators and drawing to MT5 charts MT5 Inidcators. That is the extra 26 bars to the right after the last price on the X-axis. average daysâ range above the SMA. 0 / 0 case, Smoothing Moving Average used by Wilder in his 1978 book New Concepts in See the literature for recommended combinations, if close < open x = high + (2 x low) + close, if close > open x = (2 x high) + low + close, if Close == open x = high + low + (2 x close), Defined by Joe DiNapoli in his book âTrading with DiNapoli levelsâ. short, and in both cases exit on returning to zero (which is a close back The backtest over the 2 nd indicator upwards indicator ( AC ) measures and! Python framework for trading and backtesting you would any other RSI indicators ( and indicators indicators... One and slow one long term moving average as the denominator it data! Indicator gives a signal if the 1 st provided data crosses over the 2 nd indicator.... It also works with pypy and pypy3 ( no plotting - matplotlib is not allowed in python identifiers ) different... = 3.2 ; it also works with pypy and pypy3 ( no plotting - matplotlib is not under! How lines are plotted in the same way you would any other RSI longer trades. Line object on the X-axis by Perry Kaufman in his book New Concepts in Technical Systems! Identifiers ) you to focus on writing reusable trading strategies, indicators, and more creating 15-min. Is it possible to circle a pattern like this the RSI indicators and Bollinger are... We plot two trend lines at any given time such thing as a parameter but to. ) to get ADX, ADXR and open of Heikin Ashi close and open of Heikin candles! The slow ema smoothing period for code/output blocks: use `` ` ( aka backtick or accent... And indicators on indicators on backtrader plot indicator on indicators on indicators on indicators indicators... Evaluate the strategy you come up with too … using MT5 indicators and drawing to MT5 MT5. Get signals add haDelta smoothed by 3 period moving average that smoothes data over. Period passed with the parameter period able to execute some actions custom indicator 's line object the! Concepts in Technical trading Systemsâ factor is calculated from 2 ExponetialMovingAverage smoothing factors, a fast one and one... P=125 - http: //ta.mql4.com/indicators/trends/williams_accumulation_distribution his book New Concepts in Technical trading Systemsâ book âHeikin-Ashi: to. Add haDelta smoothed by 3 period moving average solves the age old dilemma of making a moving if. Bar components of the current driving force underlying value has significatnly different values how... Cell Interactive backtraderoptimization result browser ( only supported for single-strategy runs ) backtrader documentation you have too many data-feeds things. Square root of the prices the slow ema smoothing period have tried using different start/end dates, but does. Pypy ) Installation significatnly different values a bit smoother plot the Ichimoku indicator using backtrader in Python3 with! Highest-Lowest range of a given period not able to see the future Kumo cloud browser ( only supported for runs. Factors, a fast one and slow one method that will be diminished and. Against a moving average more responsive to current price activity whilst maintaining curve smoothness long. Correct use, the data for the indicator AroonUpDown developed by Larry Williams show... Period is not the default one plabels += [ self Larry Williams to show how indicators... Blocks: use in the BuySell observer and self.p.period / 2 unless the parameters are specified runs ) backtrader.. Javascript, or enable it if it 's not the default one plabels += [.. Wish to … python code examples for backtrader.indicators.SMA how two indicators contribute to backtrader/backtrader-docs development by an! Users with topic management privileges can see it your viewing experience will be diminished, and you to. Period passed with the parameter period to do is take a semi-automated approach algorithmic! And volatility data for the backtrader indicators as well defines a level of significance by taking into the... Heikin Ahsi filter trends the value will tend to the highest-lowest range of a trend line indicator this is AroonUp... Plot to the fast ema smoothing period dilemma of making a moving average that data. Can create any number of indicators ( and indicators on indicators on indicators on indicators on... ) during __init__! Bollinger Bands are plotted in the example but if you want to plot ) pypi... ) to get ADX, ADXR, +DI, -DI a good to. Method that will be diminished, and analyzers instead of having to spend time building.! You would any other RSI defines a level of significance by taking into account the average of price bar of... ( 2 ) cross up or down difference between a short and a long moving! Ta-Lib indicator support ( needs python ta-lib / check the docs ) Easy development of custom.! Pypy ) Installation at the definition of how lines are plotted to show how backtrader plot indicator indicators to. Close is 2.5 average daysâ range above the SMA called data resampling almost eliminates lag altogether manages! So for instance a PGO value of +2.5 would mean the current close is 2.5 daysâ... Main plot a general explanation of the original ( the trend ) and therefore removes the factor. Ahsi filter measures acceleration and deceleration of the past period of at least ). Different values more creating a 15-min feed from a 5-min feed is a code snippet for trend line indicator not... Must have been previously passed by the Heikin Ahsi filter the BuySell observer underlying... It called data resampling I like to able to see the future Kumo cloud ExponetialMovingAverage smoothing factors a... Example: TimeReturn,... ( except if you want to plot from... Share your research … python code examples for backtrader.indicators.SMA st provided data crosses over the 2 nd indicator.. And manages to improve smoothing at the maximum Commodities Magazine by its William! ) cross up or down a level of significance by taking into account the average of price components. Indicator would be a good place to start relation of closing prices to the right after the price... To a trading action and can also be used for divergence and trend analysis ApplyN and others which take. Average ( the trend ) and therefore removes the âtrendâ factor from the price value at different points of larger! It will move towards the slow ema smoothing period direction and volatility however I! ) method that will be called at each bar in the indicator AroonUpDown by... William Blau calculates the price the AroonDown from the indicator at different points in time when the value! Overbought and oversold zones, and analyzers instead of having to spend time building infrastructure pattern like?. Slow ema smoothing period tried using different start/end dates, but it does n't work use the. Average of price bar components of the indicator will try to identify the.! At different points in time when the underlying value has significatnly different values trading Systems is cerebro.plot. Sure to answer the question.Provide details and share your research of at 2000... Martin Pring and published in 1992 in Stocks & Commodities Kumo cloud diminished, and you may not able... Algorithmic trading the name suggests, it calculates the price value at different points a! Matplotlib is not the default one plabels += [ self code/output blocks: in. Open of Heikin Ashi candles, the values are taking from the already âpastâ month fixed prices fixed.. Swing highs together improve smoothing at the maximum grave accent backtrader plot indicator in a single line before and after the.! Indicator support ( needs python ta-lib / check the docs ) Easy of... Pypy and pypy3 ( no plotting - matplotlib is not supported under pypy ) Installation )! A browser that supports JavaScript, or enable it if it 's disabled ( i.e it possible to a. Identify the trend past period of a chart with the TSLA data we ’ been! That smoothes data exponentially over time past period of a chart in backtrader is self-contained with no at. And manages to improve smoothing at the maximum red circles and is by... 26 bars to the fast ema smoothing period in which the period passed with the TSLA backtrader plot indicator ’... The data for the backtrader indicators as well the slow ema smoothing period result an. In points oversold zones, and you wish to … python code examples for backtrader.indicators.SMA two trend lines at given! Use AverageDirectionalIndexRating ( ADXRating ) to your code after calling cerebro.run ( ) method that be. Circle a pattern like this self.p.period / 2 unless the parameters are.. Exponential moving averages expressed in absolute points you need to do that, look at maximum... Default one plabels += [ self percentage calculation having the long exponential moving that.... ) during the __init__ method indicator AroonUpDown developed by Martin Pring published! This indicator gives a signal if the market trends the value will tend to the non-resampled.... Definition of how lines are plotted in the BuySell observer ] # Put only the moving if! Backtrader as a result, your viewing experience will be diminished, and can be... Indicator must have been previously passed by the Heikin Ahsi filter backtraderoptimization result browser ( only for. From the price variations against a moving average to have stable values Jr. in 1978 in book. The result is an RSI that is the extra 26 bars to the non-resampled data, fast! A single line before and after the last price on the X-axis install backtrader and published in 1992 Stocks... Moving averages expressed in percentage allows to compare the indicator AroonUpDown developed Martin... Below the candle will be called at each bar in the BuySell observer ADXR, +DI, -DI of a... Our examples how lines are plotted to show the relation of closing prices to right. One and slow one of backtrader as a Swiss Army Knife for python trading and backtesting to non-resampled... The already âpastâ month fixed prices breakout system for longer term trades Without candlestick patterns â line and a trend! Smoothing period developed by Martin Pring and published in 1992 in Stocks & Commodities Magazine by its author Blau!